The simplest of the many stringed instruments found throughout Africa is the musical BOW, resonated with a gourd or with the mouth of the player. ZITHERS and African-Latin American Music By Johanna 7 hemispherical or rectangular body and two arms extending to a crossbar where the strings are attached, is played in Ethiopia and Uganda. In western Africa the most common stringed instrument is the skin-covered LUTE, either boat-shaped with two to five plucked strings or hemispherical with one bowed string.
Three stringed instruments unique to Africa are the bridge harp (or harp lute), the harp zither, and the bow lute. The best-known form of the bridge harp is the 21- string Madding okra of western Africa. It is held facing the player, who plucks two lanes of strings mounted in notches on either side of a high bridge. The harp zither, best known as the Fang move of Cameroon, also has a notched bridge that is mounted in the center of its long tubular body. The bow lute, such as the Bambina Amanda, is plucked and has an individual curved neck for each string. The FLUTES of Africa are of every type except the RECORDER.
In eastern, central, and southern Africa, groups of musicians play sets of single-note vertical pipes, each person contributing a single note to create a complex polyphonic texture. Panpipes are also played in this area. Of the various reed instruments of Africa, the most table is the Hausa Algeria of Nigeria, a short conical-bore double reed. African TRUMPETS include the kaki, a straight herald trumpet of tin associated with Hausa aristocracy, but the most typical African trumpets are made of natural animal horns, ivory, or hollowed wood and are played in sets in the same manner as the single-note vertical pipes.
MUSICIANS Music is closely integrated into everyday activities in Africa. Vocal music, instrumental music, and dance are often inseparable, and the emphasis is on participation rather than on performance before an audience. Even in traditions where professionalism r virtuosity does result in a distinction between performer and audience, the audience often dances to show its appreciation. The role and status of a musician in Africa vary widely and are determined in part by the social and political structure of the community.
In egalitarian societies that are organized into small political units and that are composed of individuals generally involved in the same activities such as hunting, herding, or farming, a musician has no special status. Still, particularly talented instrumentalists or persons who are adept at leading vocal ensembles will become known for their abilities and will be allied upon to perform at all musical occasions. In those societies in which a high degree of political organization exists, in which royal courts once flourished, and in which craft specialization has developed, the role of the musician is more clearly defined and distinct.
For example, in the West African the 10th to 20th centuries, and musicianship and such related skills as oratory, historical narrative, genealogy, and stylized praise developed into a hereditary profession. * African Vocal Music African vocal music is wide ranging in it’s style and use of conventions but generally, African languages are tone languages. This means that the way the words are said can be related to pitches (high or low). Therefore the melodies and rhythms of a song often come directly from the way they talk, as the pitches match the meaning of the words.
Another important phrase (other than “tone language”) is “statistician” which is the traditional vocal music of the Zulus in South Africa Another word that you need to learn is These are effects made by the voice that sound like “eh”, “ah”, “Oh” * African Musical Instrument Performing music and making African musical instruments is an integral part of most immunities and it varies not only from country to country but from village to village.
Asana umbra, Congo There are common features though and much like the other forms of African art, most traditional African music is more than Just aesthetic expression. It permeates African life and has a function, a role to play in society; songs are used for religious ceremonies and rituals, to teach and give guidance, to tell stories, to mark the stages of life and death and to provide political guidance or express discontent.
It also serves to entertain and is used in ceremonial festivals and masquerades to work up revere from the spectators and participants alike. Singing, dancing and playing African musical instruments ensure a dynamic event transpires. Fulfill flute The impact of the music is tantamount, the beauty of it, Just like African sculpture, is secondary to the primary function. Performances may be long and often involve the participation of the audience. Much of it is associated with a particular dance.
There are some African musical instruments that cross boundaries and are found in varying shapes in the different countries but still have the same basic form. Some instruments have changed very little in 800 years since they were first recorded. Africans have strong beliefs about the status associated with particular instruments and with the spirit of an instrument. The carver of the instrument, especially true with drums, is held in high regard. Anthropomorphic harp The following are some of the African musical instruments used throughout the continent, primarily Sub-Sahara… Embarrassments (Drums): cylindrical, semi-cylindrical, barrel, hourglass, pressure, goblet, kettle, clay-pot December, West Africa harps (okras), musical bows, fiddles, lyres, zithers, lutes Earphones (Wind instruments): flutes: bamboo, millet, reed, animal horn tips, gourds trumpets: wood, gourd, metal tubes pipes; single, double reed, panpipes horns: tusks and animal horns 0 Dopiness (Resonant solids): umbra, xylophone and lampooned rattles and shakers: gourds, woven, wooden, stick bells: ankle, cluster, double, single, pod, tubular, clappers 0 Percussion: rainstorms, Woodstock, slapstick bells, rattles, slit gongs, struck gourds and calypsos, stamping tubes body: foot stamping and hand clapping African musical instruments also serve as works of art, carved into surprising shapes, overfed with patterns and decorated with beads, feathers, paint or cloth. Figures are sculpted into the instrument as spiritual tokens empowering the musician to filter the godly or ancestral messages.
Callaghan xylophone Migrations of tribes, movement of slaves and colonial porters and servants have all contributed to the wide disbursement of African musical instruments. For example, lampoonery’s with metal keys were a prominent feature in ancient Zanzibar and spread through neighboring kingdoms to Satang and Angola cultures, all the while becoming smaller and smaller for traveling purposes. Zimmermann ‘mambas’ (lampooned) and ‘mangos’ (drums) were first written about by Father Jiao dos Santos, a Portuguese who traveled through the lower Zambia in 1586 and recorded his impressions of the sounds these instruments made and the effects they had on their combined audience.
Historically, Africa has contributed hugely to music- making in many other areas of the world most notably the Americas and most significantly in genres such as Jazz, rock and roll, blues, salsa and samba. Music once considered “primitive” by Westerners is now highly respected for its rhythmic sophistication and complexity. Singing is as basic a function as talking for most African people; mothers sing to their babies on their backs as they walk, work and dance, building an inherent sense of rhythm. Dinky Touch horn trumpet If anyone has heard the ground horntail calling to his mates in the African bush in the early mornings then you will know the sound of Africa and it is echoed in their fantastic evocative music.
If anyone has watched an African woman hoeing in the field with a baby strapped tight to her back and the thud of her hoe is harmonies with the song she is singing while she toils, then this too is the resonance of Africa ND is intrinsically lodged in their genetic memory. Latin American Music Encompassing rhythms and styles originated or related to Latin America, as well as derived music genres from the United States and Europe. Some critics have defined Latin music as an incorporation of four elements: music style, geography, cultural background of the artist and language. The first of those encapsulates all salsa, meringue, tango and backchat; as well as other styles derived from a more mainstream genre, such as Latin pop, rock, Jazz and hip-hop.
It also includes recently developed genres, such aggregations. Latin American Musical Styles 1 . Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid 20th century, and lays it roots in the West African Kiss and the migration of Mortician planters and their slaves. The music, which drew upon African and French influences, became the voice of the people, and was characterized by highly rhythmic and harmonic vocals, which was most often sung in a French Creole and led by a grist. As calypso developed, the role of the grist (originally a similar traveling musician in West Africa) became known as changeable and eventually, Californian.
As English replaced patois (Creole French) as the dominant language, calypso migrated into English, and in so doing it attracted more attention from the government. It allowed the masses to challenge the doings of the unelected Governor and Legislative Council, and the elected town councils of Port of Spain and San Fernando. Calypso continued to play an important role in political expression, and also served to document the history of Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Rumba is a family of percussive rhythms, song and dance that originated n Cuba as a combination of the musical traditions of Africans brought to Cuba as slaves and Spanish colonizers. The name derives from the Cuban Spanish word rumba which means “party” or “spree”.
It is secular, with no religious connections. People of African descent in Havana and Mahatmas originally used the word rumba as a synonym for party. Olav Al©n states that over time, “rumba ceased to be simply another word for party and took on the meaning both of a defined Cuban musical genre and also of a very specific form of dance. “ The term spread in the sass and sass to the faster popular music of Cuba (the “Peanut Vendor” was a classic), where it was used as a catch-all term, rather like salsa today. Also, the term is used in the international Latin-American dance syllabus, where it is a misnomer: the music used for this slower dance is the bolero-son.
Ballroom rumba, or rumba, is basically son and not based on the authentic folkloric rumba. Similarly, the African style of pop music called African Rumba or osseous is also son-based. 3. Meringue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become popular throughout Latin America. The etymology of its name is such disputed. It may derived from the French meringue, a dessert made from whipped egg whites and sugar, but is equally likely to be related to similar West African words related to dance and music. From the canoodle ceremonies of former slave peoples helped shape the modern day Tango. The dance originated in lower-class districts of Buenos Aries and Montevideo.
The music derived from the fusion of various forms of music from Europe. The word “tango” seems to have first been used in connection with the dance in the sass. Initially it was Just one of the many dances, but it soon became popular throughout society, as theatres and street barrel organs spread it from the suburbs to the working-class slums, which were packed with hundreds of thousands of European immigrants, primarily Italians, Spanish and French. 5. Salsa is a general term referring to what is essentially Cuban popular dance music which was internationalization outside Cuba. The term “Salsa” was initially recorded, promoted and marketed in New York City during the sass.
The various musical genres comprising salsa include the Cuban son mouton, accuracy, coach, mambo, bolero and, to a lesser degree, non-Cuban inner such as the Puerco Rican bomb and plea, the Dominican meringue, and the Colombian cambium. Latin Jazz, which was also developed in New York City, has had a significant influence on salsa arrangers, piano gausses, and instrumental soloists. Salsa occasionally incorporates elements from North American rock, R&B, and funk. All of these non-Cuban elements are grafted onto the basic Cuban son mouton template when performed within the context of salsa. * Musical Instruments of Latin America Percussion Instruments 1.
Maracas are a native instrument of Latin America. They are percussion instruments (dopiness), usually played in pairs. They consist of a dried calabash or gourd shell (CIA “kook-hay”) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. They may also be made of leather, wood, or plastic. 2. Slaves are a percussion instrument (audiophile), consisting of a pair of short typically rosewood, ebony or greenmailed. Nowadays they are also made fiberglass or plastics due to the greater durability of these materials. When struck they produce a bright clicking noise. Slaves are sometimes hollow and carved in the middle to amplify the sound. 3. Bongos (are an Afro-Cuban percussion instrument.
The drums are of different size: the larger drum is called in Spanish thematic (female) and the smaller the macho (male). They are embarrassments, or instruments that create sound by a vibration of a stretched membrane. 4. Conga, or adumbrated, is a tall, narrow, single-headed Cuban drum. Although ultimately derived from African drums made from hollowed logs, the Cuban conga is staved, like a barrel. These drums were probably made from salvaged barrels originally. They are used both in Afro-Caribbean religious music and as the principal instrument in rumba. Congas are now very common in Latin music, including salsa USIA, meringue music and reggae, as well as many other forms of popular music. 5.
Casabas, similar to the shaker, is a percussion instrument that is constructed with loops of steel ball chain wrapped around a wide cylinder. The cylinder is fixed to a long, narrow wooden or plastic handle. 6. Steeple’s (also known as steel drums or pans, and sometimes, collectively with other musicians, as a steel band or orchestra) is a musical instrument originating from The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Steel pan musicians are called pianists. String Instruments 1. Actuator is the national instrument of Puerco Rice. It belongs to the lute family of string instruments. The actuator of Puerco Rice has ten strings in five courses, tuned from low to high B-e-a-d’-g’, 54321, with B and E in octaves and A, D and G in unison. A actuator player is called a guitarist. 2.
Tipple (pronounced as :tee-plea) is the Spanish word for treble or soprano, is often applied to specific instruments, generally to refer to a small choreographed of the guitar family. A tipple player is called a tipsiest. 3. Charging, is a small Andean stringed instrument of the lute family, 66 CM long, traditionally made with the shell of the back of an armadillo. Primarily played in Many contemporary chartings are now made with different types of wood. It typically has 10 strings in five courses of 2 strings each, but other variations exist. A charging player is called a caricaturing. Wind Instruments 1. Pan pipe is an ancient musical instrument based on the principle of the closed tube, consisting usually of five or more pipes of gradually increasing length (and, at times, girth).
The pan flute has long been popular as a folk instrument, and is considered the first mouth organ, ancestor of both the pipe organ and the harmonica. The pan flute is named for its association with the Greek god Pan. The God Pan played music on his pipes that has always been described as eerie and many people have been said to be intimidated by his irregular tunes. The pipes of the pan flute are typically made from bamboo or giant cane; other materials used include wood, plastic, metal and ivory. 2. Trumpet is a musical instrument. It is the highest register in the brass family. Trumpets are among the oldest musical instruments, dating back to at least 1 500 BC.
They are played by blowing air through closed lips, producing a “buzzing” sound that tarts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 1 5th century they have primarily been constructed of brass tubing, usually bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. There are several types of trumpet. The most common is a transposing instrument pitched in B b with a tubing length of about 148 CM. Earlier trumpets did not have valves, but modern instruments generally have either three piston valves or, more rarely, three rotary valves. Each valve increases the length of tubing when engaged, thereby lowering the pitch. A musician who plays the trumpet is called a trumpet player or trumpeter.